Saturday, August 18, 2007


Comic Art

Few characters in comics have seen as many guises as Bart Allen, at least without going throough some transformative process.

Bart is the grandson of the Silver Age Flash (Barry Allen) who is sent back from the future by his grandmother for training for handling the super-powers he has inherited. When he first came on the scene, he was guised as Impulse, which is as you see him depicted throughout this post. He later takes the guise of Kid Flash and finally as the fourth Flash. The Impulse moniker was a reflection of his personality more than his power, so it was natural that he would mature out of it.

I was grossly disap-pointed when he first ap-peared because of the Impulse identity. He should have been Kid Flash from the beginning - everyone in the world wanted a new Kid Flash, Impulse just seemed like a tease. Besides, that Impulse costume just does not cut it in comparison to the Kid Flash costume. And now that Bart is THE Flash, I am ready for a new Kid Flash, my favorite "sidekick" character of all time, yes, even more than Robin.

Impulse was probabaly best as you see him below, running in front of the pack known as Young Justice. He looks good there. this is a character still very much in development. Only time will tell how he will turn out, but his heritage is great.

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Friday, August 17, 2007



Church Geek has been preaching his way through the Apostles Creed, and in this post looks at the idea of God's judgement
This video comes to us from the fine folks of Westboro Baptist Church in Topeka Kansas. I’m sure some of you have heard of this church before. These are the same folks, who led by their pastor Reverend Phelps have been staging what they call “Love Crusades.” These are demonstrations at memorial services for soldiers who have been killed in Iraq. Their point is to blame the deaths of these soldiers on our country’s immoral behavior which has angered God.

Unfortunately - for many of those outside the church - this is the only message they hear about our faith. They look at us Christians and they think we are an angry, mean, judgmental lot of people. They think we worship a God who is the same.


The world is not a fair place. All around us is pain and hurt, innocence lost, human rights denied, lives abruptly taken, force brutally applied, towers tumbled down. I don’t have to go on for you to get my point.

It’s only natural to hope that justice is served. We cry for judgment to be meted out. We desire for the guilty be punished. When we or others we know are wronged we scream; someone has got to pay for this!

Our cry for justice is important. It should not be denied, because it means we are wrestling with the reality of a world that has gone awry


Now, having said all that, the place of love of doesn’t exclude the place of judgment. Love and judgment are not mutually exclusive.


As Paul writes in 1 Corinthians, it’s as if God’s love is a burning, purifying fire that tests us, that reveals in the end what we are truly made of. That fire will burn away everything within us and everything within the world that “needs to be exposed as empty and worthless


God does not hate the world. God loves the world. And it’s out of that love that the entire world – both the quick and the dead - will be subjected to the burning fire of God’s love.
This is one of the better things I have ever read on God's judgement, and I fail to understand why that is so. I know of no parent that that has not experienced the necessity, born of love, and the accompanying regret, of either punishing a child, or allowing that child to suffer the consequences of one of their actions.

We have developed such a warped concept of what love actually is. Instead of wanting the best for the other, something that sometimes requires that the other experience pain, we seek simply to protect them from pain.
I had a teacher in 8th grade that believed that we "young men and women" were old enough to discipline ourselves. The result was chaos, and your humble author was on of the chief chaos producers. It's funny, I have no fondeness for this teacher - I remember him only as an oddity, and as someone that I tried to push as far and as fast as I could. It was a challenge to see if I could get him to chastise me somehow, anyhow.

The teachers I remember with fondness, esteem, and respect are the ones that demanded of me, the ones that gave me low grades, knowing that it would spur me to do better - even the coaches that drove me to pain to improve my conditioning and my skills.

Love is not expressed in the absence of demands, but is defined by demands. Not demands for the sake of the lover, but demands for the sake of the loved. God loves us too much to let us wallow in this pile of garbage we call a world. his love for us demands that He make it better.

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Friday Humor

Fred mistakenly gets on a bus full of war veterans, but upon discovering it is going his way, decides to stay on for the ride. He sits down next to a guy that jerks his head to the left every few seconds, over and over. This really starts to get on Fred's nerves so he asks him, "What the heck is wrong with you?"

The reply is, "I got this in the war."

Fred finds this pretty annoying so he switches seats.

The next guy he sits by has uncontrollable spastic twitches in his right leg, causing him to kick the seat in front of him, and even kicks Fred a few times.

So Fred asks him, "What the heck is wrong with you?"

Again the answer is, "I got this in the war."

Fred moves.

The next guy poor Fred sits by begins erratically flailing his left hand. Fred says, "Let me guess, you got that in the war."

His reply was, "No, I got it out of my nose. I can't get it off of my hand."

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Thursday, August 16, 2007


Aiding and Abetting

MMI recently reported on criminal charges against pastors that failed to report child molestation in their congregation. Grace is the example of Christ, but grace does not always mean an absence of consequence, in fact, sometimes, grace demands consequence.

Is the miracle of the cross that the consequence of our sin was removed? NO! It is that our consequences were born by Christ instead of us. (I know, I know, some people don't but the whole "subsitutionary atonement" thing anymore, but here are the consequences of that theological viewpoint, in spades.) And that is all great for our eternal destination, but we still have a society to run and we cannot let people that victimize children run around with the opportunity to do it again. Nor do I believe that such is what God intends for us.

I have way too much personal experience with situations similar to this. Nothing with children this young, but teenagers and adults, I have seen it time and time again. And some of the offenders remain my friends, just so we are straight here.

I've shared this before on this blog. An aquaintance, now well into his retirement, but he was one the the best businessmen and more powerful politico's I have known, used to say "You fire them, then you help them." His point? When people screw up, as a leader you have to impress the consequences of their screw up on them, as a human, afterwards, you reach out to them and help them find their next job. Anything else and the offender doesn't ever learn to change and the organization suffers from a huge credibility problem. Need we look any farther that the scandals facing the LA Archdiocese to figure this out?

You see, the church has to extend grace not only to the offender, but to the offended. The actions of these pastors SPIT IN THE FACE of the offended, it added offense to offense, it added shame to injury.

So what is a churh to do? Yes turn them in, fire them - hard and publicly. Then send in your prison ministry teams - that's grace. When they are out of jail, help them find a job, just make sure it is one that minimizes their opportunity to do something like this again.

AND EMBRACE THE VICTIMS! Surround them with the love of Christ, hold them up, get them the medical and psychological help they are going to need, maybe for the rest of their lives.

These pastors have besmirched the name of Christ as much as the molestor, maybe even more. They have misrepresented grace and they have made victim of the victimizer and discarded the victim. Somehow, I do not believe that is Christ's example.

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Illuminated Scripture

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Wednesday, August 15, 2007


The (Mis)Use of Scripture

BHT pointed to a piece that demonstrates some really bad proof-testing on Rick Warren's part. Warren is far from my favorite person in the world, but it is not the rather long rant that paints him in near deveish terms, the very idea of proof-texting that I want to discuss. Have you ever thought what proof-texting really is? Says the Extreme Theology post:
...rips passages out of context, exegetes bad paraphrases and generally proof texts his own ‘made up’ doctrines.
Proof texting is just another example of placing ourselves in front of God. We use His words to justify our thoughts rather than try to make His thoughts our own.

We seem to be a nation of control freaks. We have a remote control for everything. I had a car radio a few years ago that had a handheld (not in the steering wheel) remote control, as if the knobs were not distraction enough from driving. Most of our consumer economy is driven by giving the consumer a plethora of choices so they can get precisely what they want.

Think about the shift in music sales - does anyone buy "albums" any more? Does anybody remember those great concept albums, like Sgt. Pepper's? Oh no, we want to control what we listen to, so we rip the "singles" and completely lose the intent of the those that created it.

Well, it is one thing to do that to the Beatles - it is another thing altogether to do that to GOD! Who the heck are we to think that we can pick and choose what He wants to say to us, or even bend His words to support our own ideas? HE IS GOD for pityfied sakes.

Being a Christian is about giving up control. Fortunately, we are giving that control to the most reliable, most loving, clearest thinking, always-in-our-best-interest being who has all those attributes far beyond our own imaginings.

Increasingly, my heart hurts when I see people struggle to control. The events of my life in recent months illustrate how completely uncontrollable the big things in life are. The struggle to control such things is pure vanity. I have watched many around me struggle to regain control in the wake of my parent's accident and my father's death. It's impossible, the world is irretrievably different and the control I had before was illusion.

I choose to let Him who really has control anyway, control things. I choose to rest in His arms, for while I have no control there, I am safe, and loved, and life is good.

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Tuesday, August 14, 2007



Glenn Lucke at CGO recently put up a video excerpting John Piper on the "prosperity gospel." It caught me a bit unawares as I viewed it just a bit after my father's death in an auto accident. That fact made the piece's impact on me personally very significant, and very deep.

Piper's thesis, that God is most glorified not by the prosperity He gives us, but by the comfort He gives us in suffering. God's greatest glory is not when things are good, but the fact that He cares for us when things are bad. I agree, but I want to challenge Piper's semantics a bit.

God's greatest glory is not that He comforts us in suffering, but that He makes victory of suffering. Piper would no doubt counter that such phrasiology is where the prosperity gospel sneaks in, but I don't think so, because part of that process is that God redefines victory.

Because Piper talks about finding God in a auto accident, I am thinking about my father's death in this a lot. What victory is there in that most awful of circumstances? There are a number of "little things," ranging from how my father raised me to handle the circumstances to the blessings of the exteneded family that was there to the absolute power and helpfulness of my wife.

But there is one major victory in all of this, pulling the plug was the easiest decision I have ever made - it was the hardest ever to execute, but the easiest to make. Two things made it easy to make - the first was my father had always made his desires clear. The second; however, is far more important. I knew these words, and I knew their TRUTH:
1 Cor 15:53-57 - For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, "Death is swallowed up in victory. "O death, where is your victory? O death, where is your sting?" The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
I knew that my father was gong to a better place, that made the decision easy. The execution was hard not becasue of what it meant for my father, but because of what it meant for me. It meant the lose of the man that shaped me, it meant the lose of my friend, it removed a great deal from my life, but oh how it enriched his.

And God has that handled too. You see, God tells me that if I am His man then I should put what is best for my father before what is best for me. God tells me that He will provide, and He has.

My father's death was victory. It was God's victory over sin so that He could welcome my father into His arms. It was victory because on that day, and on every day since, I have had to rely more on God's strength and less on my father's, and for that I am a better man. It was victory because it left me no place to stand but in the presence of Him who defines victory.

God's glory is not in comfort in suffering, but that He and only He can make suffering victory.
John 14:27 - "Peace I leave with you; My peace I give to you; not as the world gives, do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, nor let it be fearful.
The message of the cross is that Christ's death was the ultimate victory.

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Kitty Kartoons

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Monday, August 13, 2007


Think Big

Milt Stanley wonders via Swapblog/Blogwatch if we do not think too much in the short term. Quoting the later
We look at our lives, our struggles and our dreams and we want instant results, quick fixes, and millisecond responses. The problem is that our lives are not novellas, but are in fact epic stories. Epic stories are not written in hours or in day. Epics are written over years and decades.


Our walks with God can not be measured in the short term. Remember that due to the actions and issues within their own lives it took a generation for the Israelites to go from Egypt to the promised land. Yet, we want to go from our personal or collective Egypt to our personal / collective promised land in just a few days or weeks. God does not work that way. To help us with this situation though, He is always telling us His plans and providing for His word and work to be successful if we just listen and allow Him too lead.
God said through Isaiah
Isa 55:8-9 - For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.
Our desire for instant results is all about our maintaining control - it's about us wanting to understand - it's about putting our faith somewhere other than in our Lord.

Think about it for just a minute. Remember when you were a child? You did not understand the world around you; you did not necessarily know where you were going or what you were doing, but you knew that when you were with your parents, whatever it was would be fine. You had faith in your parents.

Why do we find it so hard to have that kind of faith in God? Why do we feel like we have to understand, we have to see what is happening. He is after all God, benevolent, loving, and most importantly, good. With Him we should know it will be OK.

Job said: Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him (Job 13:15) and Isaac trusted his father to the point of allowing him to tie him to an altar.

We do not, in fact we cannot, know all that God has in store for us, but we can know that God Himself is trustworthy. If we take the journey with Him, it will be safe, and it will be good.

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Sunday, August 12, 2007


Sermons and Lessons


Basil, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, and styled “The Great,” was the founder of Eastern monasticism, defender of the Nicene doctrines and doctor of the Church. He was born at Caesarea in 329, and was thoroughly educated in all that a teacher like Libanius could impart at Rome, and Himerius at Constantinople. Returning home, he plunged into the pleasures of social life, but was induced by his sister to visit the hermits of Syria, Palestine and Egypt. Attracted during his travels to the religious life, he secluded himself in a lonely spot in inclement Pontus.

During his monastic life of seven years (357-364) he formulated the monastic rule still observed by Eastern monks. Ordained presbyter in 364, he labored in founding religious institutions of various kinds. He attracted notice by his growing Nicene predilections, and was elected bishop of his native town (370) and virtual primate of Asia Minor. His conduct in dealing with the Arians was uncompromising yet conciliating. As a theologian he stands next to his brother Gregory and to Athanasius, but he excels them both in the literary charm and variety of his Greek style. He died in 379.

The earth was without form and void. - Gen. 1., 2.


In the few words which have occupied us this morning we have found such a depth of thought that we despair of penetrating farther. If such is the forecourt of the sanctuary, if the portico of the temple is so grand and magnificent, if the splendor of its beauty thus dazzles the eyes of the soul, what will be the holy of holies? Who will dare to try to gain access to the innermost shrine? Who will look into its secrets? To gaze into it is indeed forbidden us, and language is powerless to express what the mind conceives.

However, since there are rewards, and most desirable ones, reserved by the just Judge for the intention alone of doing good, do not let us hesitate to continue our researches. Altho we may not attain to the truth, if, with the help of the Spirit, we do not fall away from the meaning of Holy Scripture, we shall not deserve to be rejected, and with the help of grace, we shall contribute to the edification of the Church of God.

“The earth,” says Holy Scripture, “was without form and void” - i.e., invisible and unfinished. The heavens and the earth were created together. How, then, is it that the heavens are perfect whilst the earth is still unformed and incomplete? In one word, what was the unfinished condition of the earth and for what reason was it invisible? The fertility of the earth is its perfect finishing; growth of all kinds of plants, the up-springing of tall trees, both productive and unfruitful, flowers’ sweet scents and fair colors, and all that which, a little later, at the voice of God came forth from the earth to beautify her, their universal mother.

As nothing of all this yet existed, Scripture is right in calling the earth “without form.” We could also say of the heavens that they were still imperfect and had not received their natural adornment, since at that time they did not shine with the glory of the sun and of the moon, and were not crowned by the choirs of the stars. These bodies were not yet created. Thus you will not diverge from the truth in saying that the heavens also were “without form.” The earth was invisible for two reasons: it may be because man, the spectator, did not yet exist, or because, being submerged under the waters which overflowed the surface, it could not be seen, since the waters had not yet been gathered together into their own places, where God afterward collected them and gave them the name of sea.

What is invisible? First of all, that which our fleshly eye can not perceive - our mind, for example; then that which, visible in its nature, is hidden by some body which conceals it, like iron in the depths of the earth. It is in this sense that the earth, in that it was hidden under the waters, was still invisible. However, as light did not yet exist, and as the earth lay in darkness because of the obscurity of the air above it, it should not astonish us that for this reason Scripture calls it “invisible.”

But the corrupters of the truth, who, incapable of submitting their reason to Holy Scripture, distort at will the meaning of the Holy Scriptures, pretend that these words mean matter. For it is matter, they say, which from its nature is without form and in¬visible - being by the conditions of its existence without quality and without form and figure. The Artificer submitting it to the working of His wisdom clothed it with a form, organized it, and thus gave being to the visible world.

If the matter is uncreated, it has a claim to the same honors as God, since it must be of equal rank with Him. Is this not the summit of wickedness that utter chaos, without quality, without form or shape, ugliness without configuration, to use their own expression, should enjoy the same prerogatives as He who is wisdom, power, and beauty itself, the Creator and the Demiurge of the universe enjoys? This is not all. If the matter is so great as to be capable of being acted on by the whole wisdom of God, it would in a way raise its hypostasis to an equality with the inaccessible power of God, since it would be able to measure by itself all the extent of the divine intelligence.

If it is insufficient for the operations of God, then we fall into a more absurd blasphemy, since we condemn God for not being able, on account of the want of matter, to finish His own works. The resourcelessness of human nature has deceived these reasoners. Each of our crafts is exercised upon some special matter - the art of the smith upon iron, that of the carpenter on wood. In all there is the subject, the form and the work which results from the form. Matter is taken from without - art gives the form - and the work is composed at the same time of form and of matter.

Such is the idea that they make for them¬selves of the divine work. The form of the world is due to the wisdom of the supreme Artificer; matter came to the Creator from without; and thus the world results from a double origin. It has received from outside its matter and its essence, and from God its form and figure. They thus come to deny that the mighty God has presided at the formation of the universe, and pretend that he has only brought a crowning contribution to a common work; that he has only contributed some small portion to the genesis of beings; they are incapable, from the debasement of their reasonings, of raising their glances to the height of truth. Here, below, arts are subsequent to matter - introduced into life by the indispensable need of them. Wool existed before weaving made it supply one of nature’s imperfections. Wood existed before carpentering took possession of it, and transformed it each day to supply new wants and made us see all the advantages derived from it, giving the oar to the sailor, the win¬nowing-fan to the laborer, the lance to the soldier.

But God, before all those things which now attract our notice existed, after casting about in His mind and determining to bring into being that which had no being, imagined the world such as it ought to be, and created matter in harmony with the form which He wished to give it. He assigned to the heavens the nature adapted for the heavens, and gave to the earth an essence in accordance with its form. He formed, as he wished, fire, air, and water, and gave to each the essence which the object of its existence required.

Finally he welded all the diverse parts of the universe by links of indissoluble attachment and established between them so perfect a fellowship and harmony that the most distant, in spite of their distance, appeared united in one universal sympathy. Let those men, therefore, renounce their fabulous imaginations, who in spite of the weakness of their argument, pretend to measure a power as incomprehensible to man’s reason as it is unutterable by man’s voice.

God created the heavens and the earth, but not only one-half of each; He created all the heavens and all the earth, creating the essence with the form. For He is not an inventor of figures, but the Creator even of the essence of beings. Further, let them tell us how the efficient power of God could deal with the passive nature of matter, the latter furnishing the matter without form, the former possessing the science of the form without matter, both being in need of each other; the Creator in order to display his art, matter in order to cease to be without form and to receive a form. But let us stop here and return to our subject.

“The earth was invisible and unfinished.” In saying “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” the sacred writer passed over many things in silence - water, air, fire, and the results from them, which, all forming in reality the true complement of the world, were, without doubt made at the same time as the universe. By this silence history wishes to train the activity of our intelligence, giving it a weak point for starting, to impel it to the discovery of the truth.

Thus, we are told of the creation of water but, as we are told that the earth was in. visible, ask yourself what could have covered it and prevented it from being seen? Fire could not conceal it. Fire brightens all about it, and spreads light rather than darkness around. No more was it air that enveloped the earth. Air by nature is of little density and transparent. It receives all kinds of visible objects and transmits them to the spectators. Only one supposition remains: that which floated on the surface of the earth wai water, the fluid essence which had not yet been confined to its own place.

Thus the earth was not only invisible; it was still incomplete. Even to-day excessive damp is a hindrance to the productiveness of the earth. The same cause at the same time prevents it from being seen and from being complete, for the proper and natural adornment of the earth is its completion: corn waving in the valleys, meadows green with grass and rich with many-colored flowers, fertile glades and hilltops shaded by forests. Of all this nothing was yet produced; the earth was in travail with it in virtue of the power that she had received from the Creator. But she was waiting for the appointed time and the divine order to bring forth.

“Darkness was upon the face of the deep.” A new source for fables and most impious imaginations may be found by distorting the sense of these words at the will of one’s fancies. By “darkness” these wicked men do not understand what is meant in reality - air not illumined, the shadow produced by the interposition of a body, or finally a place for some reason deprived of light. For them “darkness” is an evil power, or rather the personification of evil, having his origin in himself in opposition to, and in perpetual struggle with, the goodness of God. If God is light, they say, without any doubt the power which struggles against Him must be darkness, “darkness” not owing its existence to a foreign origin, but an evil existing by itself. “Darkness” is the enemy of souls, the primary cause of death, the adversary of virtue. The words of the prophet, they say in their error, show that it exists and that it does not proceed from God. From this what perverse and impious dogmas have been imagined! What grievous wolves, tearing the flock of the Lord, have sprung from these words to cast themselves upon souls! Is it not from hence that have come forth Marcions and Valentinuses and the detestable heresy of the Manicheans which you may, without going far wrong, call the putrid humor of the churches ‘1

O man, why wander thus from the truth and imagine for thyself that which will cause thy perdition? The word is simple and within the comprehension of all. “The earth was invisible.” Why? Because the “deep” was spread over its surface. What is “the deep?” A mass of water of extreme depth. But we know that we can see many bodies through clear and transparent water. How, then, was it that no part of the earth appeared through the water? Because the air which surrounded it was still without light and in darkness. The rays of the sun, penetrating the water, often allow us to see the pebbles which form the bed of the river, but in a dark night it is impossible for our glance to penetrate under the water. Thus, these words, “the earth was invisible,” are explained by those that follow; “the deep” covered it and itself was in darkness. Thus the deep is not a multitude of hostile powers, as has been imagined; nor “darkness” an evil sovereign force in enmity with good. In reality two rival principles of equal power, if engaged without ceasing in a war of mutual attacks, will end in self-destruction.

But if one should gain the mastery it would completely annihilate the conquered. Thus, to maintain the balance in the struggle between good and evil is to represent them as engaged in a war without end and in perpetual destruction, where the opponents are at the same time conquerors and conquered. If good is the stronger, what is there to prevent evil from being completely annihilated? But if that be the case, the very utterance of which is impious, I ask myself how it is that they themselves are not filled with horror to think that they have imagined such abominable blasphemies.

It is equally impious to say that evil has its origin from God; because the contrary can not proceed from its contrary. Life does not engender death; darkness is not the origin of light; sickness is not the maker of health. In the changes of conditions there are transitions from one condition to the contrary; but in genesis each being proceeds from its like and from its contrary. If, then, evil is neither uncreated nor created by God, from whence comes its nature? Certainly, that evil exists no one living in the world will deny. What shall we say, then? Evil is not a living animated essence: it is the condition of the soul opposed to virtue, developed in the careless on account of their falling away from good.

Do not, then, go beyond yourself to seek for evil, and imagine that there is an original nature of wickedness. Each of us - let us acknowledge it - is the first author of his own vice.

Among the ordinary events of life, some come naturally, like old age and sickness; others by chance, like unforeseen occurrences, of which the origin is beyond ourselves, often sad, sometimes fortunate - as, for instance, the discovery of a treasure when digging a well, or the meeting of a mad dog when going to the market-place.

Others depend upon ourselves; such as ruling one‘s passions, or not putting a bridle on one’s pleasures; the mastery of anger, or resistance against him who irritates us; truth-telling or lying, the maintenance of a sweet and well-regulated disposition, or of a mood fierce and swollen and exalted with pride. Here you are the master of your actions. Do not look for the guiding cause beyond yourself, but recognize that evil, rightly so called, has no other origin than our voluntary falls. If it were involuntary, and did not depend upon ourselves, the laws would not have so much terror for the guilty, and the tribunals would not be so pitiless when they condemn wretches according to the measure of their crimes.

But enough concerning evil rightly so called. Sickness, poverty, obscurity, death, finally all human afflictions, ought not to be ranked as evils, since we do not count among the greatest boons things which are their opposites. Among these afflictions some are the effect of nature, others have obviously been for many a source of advantage. Let us be silent for the moment about these metaphors and allegories, and, simply following without vain curiosity the words of Holy Scripture, let us take from darkness the idea which it gives us.

But reason asks, Was darkness created with the world? Is it older than light? Why, in spite of its inferiority, has it preceded it? Darkness, we reply, did not exist in essence; it is a condition produced in the air by the withdrawal of light. What, then, is that light which disappeared suddenly from the world so that darkness should cover the face of the deep? If anything had existed before the formation of this sensible and perishable world, no doubt we conclude it would have been in the light. The orders of angels, the heavenly hosts, all intellectual natures named or unnamed, all the ministering spirits, did not live in darkness, but enjoyed a condition fitted for them in light and spiritual joy. -

No one will contradict this, least of all he who looks for celestial light as one of the rewards promised to virtue - the light which, as Solomon says, is always a light to the righteous, the light which made the apostle say, “Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light.” Finally, if the condemned are sent into outer darkness, evidently those who are made worthy of God’s approval are at rest in heavenly light. When, then, according to the order of God, the heaven appeared, enveloping all that its circumference included, a vast and unbroken body separating outer things from those
which it enclosed, it necessarily kept the space inside in darkness for want of communication with the outer light.

Three things are, indeed, needed to form a shadow: light, a body, a dark place. The shadow of heaven forms the darkness of the world. Understand, I pray you, what I mean, by a simple example-by raising for yourself at midday a tent of some compact and impenetrable material, you shut yourself up in sudden darkness. Suppose that original darkness was like this, not subsisting directly by itself, but resulting from some external causes. If it is said that it rested upon the deep, it is because the extremity of air naturally touches the surface of bodies; and as at that time the water covered everything, we are obliged to say that darkness was upon the face of the deep.

“And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters?” Does this Spirit mean the diffusion of air? The sacred writer wishes to enumerate to you the elements of the world, to tell you that God created the heavens, the earth, water and air, and that the last was now diffused and in motion; or rather, that which is truer and confirmed by the authority of the ancients, by the Spirit of God he means the Holy Spirit. It is, as has been remarked, the special name, the name above all others that Scripture delights to give to the Holy Spirit, and by the Spirit of God the Holy Spirit is meant, the Spirit, namely, which completes the divine and blessed Trinity. You will always find it better, therefore, to take it in this sense. How, then, did the Spirit of God move upon the waters? The explanation that I am about to give you is not an original one, but that of a Syrian who was as ignorant in the wisdom of this world as he was versed in the knowledge of the truth.

He said, then, that the Syriac word was more expressive, and that, being more analo¬gous to the Hebrew term, it was a nearer approach to the Scriptural sense. This is the meaning of the word: by “moved” the Syrians, he says, understand brooded over. The Spirit cherished the nature of the waters as one sees a bird cover the eggs with her body and impart to them vital force from her own warmth. Such is, as nearly as possible, the meaning of these words - the Spirit moved: that is, prepared the nature of water to produce living beings: a sufficient proof for those who ask if the Holy Spirit took an active part in the creation of the world.

“And God said, Let there be light.” The first word uttered by God created the nature of light; it made darkness vanish, dispelled gloom, illuminated the world, and gave to all being at the same time a sweet and gracious aspect. The heavens, until then enveloped in darkness, appeared with that beauty which they still present to our eyes. The air was lighted up, or rather made the light circulate mixed with its substance, and, distributing its splendor rapidly in every direction, so dispersed itself to its extreme limits. Up it sprang to the very ether and heaven. In an instant it lighted up the whole extent of the world, the north and the south, the east and the west. For the ether also is such a subtle substance and so transparent that it needs not the space of a moment for light to pass through it. Just as it carries our sight instantaneously to the object of vision, so without the least interval, with a rapidity that thought can not conceive, it receives these rays of light in its uttermost limits. With light the ether becomes more pleasing and the waters more limpid. These last, not content with receiving its splendor, return it by the reflection of light and in all directions send forth quivering flashes. The divine word gives every object a more cheerful and a more attractive appearance, just as when men pour in oil into the deep sea they make the place about them smooth. So, with a single word and in one instant the Creator of all things gave the boon of light to the world.

“Let there be light.” The order was itself an operation, and a state of things was brought into being than which man’s mind can not even imagine a pleasanter one for our enjoyment. It must be well understood that when we speak of the voice, of the word, of the command of God, this divine language does not mean to us a sound which escapes from the organs of speech, a collision of air struck by the tongue; it is a simple sign of the will of God, and, if we give it the form of an order, it is only the better to impress the souls whom we instruct.

“And God saw the light, that it was good.” How can we worthily praise light after the testimony given by the Creator to its goodness? The word, even among us, refers the judgment to the eyes, incapable of raising itself to the idea that the senses have already received. But if beauty in bodies results from symmetry of parts and the harmonious appearance of colors how, in a simple and homogeneous essence like light, can this idea of beauty be preserved? Would not the symmetry in light be less shown in its parts than in the pleasure and delight at the sight of it? Such is also the beauty of gold, which it owes, not to the happy mingling of its parts, but only to its beautiful color, which has a charm attractive to the eyes.

Thus, again, the evening star is the most beautiful of the stars: not that the parts of which it is composed form a harmonious whole, but thanks to the unalloyed and beautiful brightness which meets our eyes. And further, when God proclaimed the goodness of light, it was not in regard to the charm of the eye, but as a provision for future advantage, because at that time there were as yet no eyes to judge of its beauty.

“And God divided the light from the dark¬ness.” That is to say, God gave them natures incapable of mixing, perpetually in opposition to each other, and put between them the widest space and distance.

“And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night.” Since the birth of the sun, the light that it diffuses in the air when shining on our hemisphere is day, and the shadow produced by its disappearance is night. But at that time it was not after the movement of the sun, but following this primitive light spread abroad in the air or withdrawn in a measure determined by God, that day came and was followed by night.

“And the evening and the morning were the first day.” Evening is then the boundary common to day and night; and in the same way morning constitutes the approach of night to day. It was to give day the privileges of seniority that Scripture put the end of the first day before that of the first night, because night follows day: for, before the creation of light, the world was not in night, but in darkness. It is the opposite of day which was called night, and it did not receive its name until after nay. Thus were created the evening and the morning. Scripture means the space of a day and a night, and afterward no more says day and night, but calls them both under the name of the more important: a custom which you will find throughout Scripture. Everywhere the measure of time is counted by days without mention of nights. “The days of our years,” says the Psalmist; “few and evil have the days of the years of my life been,” said Jacob; and elsewhere “all the days of my life.”

“And the evening and the morning were the first day,” or, rather, one day. (Revised Vers). Why does Scripture say “one day,” not “the first day?” Before speaking to us of the second, the third, and the fourth days, would it not have been more natural to call that one the first which began the series? If it, therefore, says “one day,” it is from a wish to determine the measure of day and night and to combine the time that they contain. Now, twenty-four hours fill up the space of one day—we mean of a day and of a night; and if, at the time of the solstices, they have not both an equal length, the time marked by Scripture does not the less circumscribe their duration. It is as though it said: Twenty-four hours measure the space of a day, or a day is in reality the time that the heavens, starting from one point, take to return thither. Thus, every time that, in the revolution of the sun, evening and morning occupy the world, their periodical succession never exceeds the space of one day.

But we must believe that there is a mysterious reason for this? God, who - made the nature of time, measured it out and determined it by intervals of days; and, wishing to give it a week as a measure, he ordered the week to resolve from period to period upon itself, to count the movement of time, form¬ing the week of one day revolving seven times upon itself: a proper circle begins and ends with itself. Such is also the character of eternity, to revolve upon itself and to end nowhere. If, then, the beginning of time is called “one day” rather than “the first day,” it is because Scripture wishes to establish its relationship with eternity. It was, in reality, fit and natural to call “one” the day whose character is to be one wholly separated and isolated from all others. If Scripture speaks to us of many ages, saying everywhere “age of age, and ages of ages,” we do not see it enumerate them as first, second, and third. It follows that we are hereby shown, not so much limits, ends, and succession of ages as distinctions between various states and modes of action. “The day of the Lord,” Scripture says, “is great and very terrible,” and elsewhere, “Woe unto you that desire the day of the Lord: to what end is it for you? The day of the Lord is darkness and not light.”

A day of darkness for those who are worthy of darkness. No; this day without evening, without succession, and without end is not unknown to Scripture, and it is the day that the Psalmist calls the eighth day, because it is outside this time of weeks. Thus, whether you call it day or whether you call it eternity, you express the same idea. Give this state the name of day; there are not several, but only one. If you call it eternity still it is unique and not manifold. Thus it is in order that you may carry your thoughts forward toward a future life that Scripture marks by the word “one” the day which is the type of eternity, the first-fruits of days, the contemporary of light, the holy Lord’s day.

But while I am conversing with you about the first evening of the world, evening takes me by surprise and puts an end to my discourse. May the Father of the true light, who has adorned day with celestial light, who has made to shine the fires which illuminate us during the night, who reserves for us in the peace of a future age a spiritual and everlasting light, enlighten your hearts in the knowledge of truth, keep you from stumbling, and grant that “you may walk honestly as in the day.” Thus shall you shine as the sun in the midst of the glory of the saints, and I shall glory in you in the day of Christ, to whom belong all glory and power for ever and ever. Amen.

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