Saturday, September 09, 2006


Saturday "Whooo-Hoo!' Links

California Politics:

Meanwile, we continue down the road to social anarchy and bankruptcy. There are very few serious people left in Sacramento....

And they say you can never tell about a person's sexual orientation - UH-HUH.

Go ahead, make my day.

Well, if you have to do pest control, you might as well enjoy it. This story does, however, leave visions of Bill Murray and strains of the 1812 Overture dancing through my head.

For the sake of humanity, I link but make no comment.

I think this is carrying political correctness waaaaaay too far, don't you?

This simply made me laugh out loud.

Those snakes...they get you coming and going.

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Comic Art

One of the "tricks" in comics is to take the battle between
good and evil from the plot and put it squarely into one of the characters. Do you think that might be the idea behind a hero called, at least sometimes "Son of Satan"? This guy has had more names than Carters has pills. His "real" name is Daimon Hellstrom, and recently he has dropped the whole "Son of..." thing and just goes by Hellstrom. Anyway, he is one more character for us to look at as we work our way through the less recognizable names from The Defenders.

It's a simple story really, demon that fancies himself the real evil one, so he takes the name "Satan," impregnates mere mortal woman and produces demi-demon who grows up to perform heroic acts as a means of claiming his humanity and purging the evil demon influence from his soul.

The perfect character for the heavily mystic near-team called the Defenders, and perhaps my least favorite hero in all of comicdom. There are a couple of overwhelming reasons I could not like this character.

First of all, the whole idea is just kind of, well....chicken. It's not the "real" Satan, just your run of the mill demon that likes the name and thinks he is more powerfully evil than the average demon. The "Marvel Universe" is somewhat littered with these near-miss devils. The writers and artists wanted to borrow traditional names, images, and symbols, but not trample on the underlying, heavily religious legends, so they "chickened out" - "it's the devil, but it's not your devil, you small minded Christians actually silly enough to believe in such things. "

But it's the symbology involved with this character that really bothers me. Hellstrom first appeared in the title of one of the better demonic heros - Ghost Rider (modern version). Johnny Blaze is a human fused with a demon, and like Hellstrom, fighting to be good despite an evil half. Blaze; however, looks cool, that firey skull and the motorcycle made of hellfire. Evil looking indeed, but not the traditional symbols of evil and the occult like the pentagram emblazoned on Hellstroms chest. You want Blaze's good side to win because his evil look is just cool enough to make root for him.

Hellstrom looks like the devil with white skin. The pentagram, psuedo-horns, and pitchfork looked so like the devil of legend that I never could buy the character as having a good side. The battle between halves never has seemed authentic in the character. It always struck me that if he was struggling to be good, he would work to obliterate the evil symbols about him, and yet, he always sought to somehow redeem them. I was never interested in having the devil's pitchfork redeemed, only condemned.

It's time to look at some of the more fun characters from the Defenders in the next few weeks.

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Friday, September 08, 2006


Friday Humor - The Late Edition

Ok, this is from South Park, and therefore definitionally in poor taste. But I have to think Steve Irwin did not take himself too seriously, and the end of this is truly funny, so consider this my poor-taste-kinda-weird-dark-humor tribute to the Croc Hunter.


Christians and Creation - Reworking a Post

Last week, I posted on Christians and their relationship to creation. It was more or less started by this, but really more by Al Mohler's comments on that. However, some further thought, a great comment from Jollyblogger and a couple of other blog posts that have appeared make me want to go over it again.

This post will not go into great detail, but is designed to lay the arguement out in pretty close to bullet format.
I was discussing the different viewpoints between a "Christian environmentalist" and a "secular environmentalist." However, I want to start by adjusting my vocabulary. I have argued against "Christian Environmentalism" before. I have not changed my position on anything I said then; therefore, I think consistency demands I adjust my vocabulary. I also believe that the very term "environmentalist," or "environmentalism," has come to be associated so strongly with the secular viewpoint in matters of creation, that it is oxymoronic to attempt to speak of it as Christian. Finally, environmentalism has become essentially a religion (what else could account for "hate speech" as Doug TenNapel aptly refers to it?) so to discuss "Christian environmentalism" is again oxymoronic, but this time because it would be analogous to saying "Christian Buddihism." So I will simply talk about it as a Christian's view of and relationship to creation.

My essential thesis is that the essence of environmentalism is the preservation of creation, nature, the universe, Gaia, whatever, in it's current, or more likely and prominently, some regressive state. What else could account for something like this? Consider the very concept of "eco-system" - that on which all environmental concern is based. The eco-system is, in essence, an equilibrium of all factors, animal, plant, climatic, and mineral. Stresses placed on any factor in the equilibrium will "change the delicate balance" and result in a change in the various life forms of some sort, extinction, population reduction, mutation, all those things considered negatives when it comes to the environment. The foundational idea of environmental concern is a statis - environmentalists have a static view of creation, or the universe.

I argued, and restate the arguement here, that the Christian, nay even the Judeo-Christian, view of creation is that of a dynamic universe, one in which change is in fact the norm. I argued this based on two factors

Now from this, I conclude that God has given man a duty that is directly opposed to that of the environmentalist - that duty being to change creation in accordance to God's purpose, and not preserve it in its current form, or even some regressive form.

David, in support of this conclusion in the comments, goes on to point out that creation was cursed as a result of the fall.

Gen 3:17-19 - Then to Adam He said, "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, 'You shall not eat from it'; cursed is the ground because of you; in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life. Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you; and you shall eat the plants of the field; By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, because from it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return." [emphasis added]
Thus, our mandate to change creation is not only merely a reflection of God's image through the creative impulse, but is in fact part of our mandate to exercise dominion, and to be His instruments of redemption of creation.

David's point is a good one, but it is the same argument used by "Christian environmentalists" to support their often wrong-headed actions. The key question is the direction of change, not necessarily change itself, at least when thoughtful environmentalists are involved. It must be remembered that hardcore environmentalists seek regression in the state of creation, not even statis at the current point. I argued purely from the creative impulse because it implies a forward movement, not a regressive one, but David adds another argument to the redemption point which also establishes direction in a forward way
the trajectory of creation as it moves from garden in Eden to city in the New Heavens and New Earth. The garden is creation in it's primal form, before the work of man. The city is creation in its final form, after the work of man's building of it.
I am only passingly familiar with the trajectory as David describes it here, I need to do the background work to shore the idea up. One of the primary reasons I am writing this post is as a sort of "bookmark" on the issue so I can return to it as I do that background work.

Now that I have put it this way, I believe there is a bottom line to all this. The Christian believes in a fallen man and a cursed creation. The path of redemption lies ahead. The environmentalist believes that man is the curse to creation, not simply the cause of the curse, and that redemption lies behind.

I chose to move forward, with my Lord.

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Have A Go At These Links

OK BUBBA! Go stick your head in a toilet! Here's the thing. We swallowed Michael Moore's nearly entirely fictious "documentary" and refuted it, we did not attempt to halt distribution. The Reagan thing was a personal attack not a look at issues. Let me repeat that. The CBS Reagan thing was a biopic, not a review of events and policy - BIG DIFFERENCE. Also, on the Reagan thing, the former President himself never got involved and we never rallied the troops to threaten the force of the federal government. For the second time you belittle and demean the office you held for the sake of your own personal agrandizement.

Great question/issue! Unsatisfactory/incomplete responses - one - two - three Two quick thoughts: First, Churches are far to accepting of pastors with family trouble. Divorce should still be stigmatized for the pulpit. Marital strife should warrant a leave of absence. Secondly, I think the Catholics are on to something when it comes to this question.

So, who gets tried for manslaughter? Michael Schiavo? The doctors? All those who told me "the lights were on but no one was home?"

Little sisters everywhere, BEWARE.

Bookmark this and read it all! Excellent series on Christians and econmics. Don't know if I agree with every word, but good stuff - oughtta be turned into a book.

Things are not going well in the UK right now. Not well at all.

Oh...No, there's no hyperbole here.
Climate change is "potentially the most serious threat there has ever been" to security and prosperity, according to Britain's new climate ambassador.
See item above.

Pro wrestling is all about the bad guys. But does the viewing public yet understand how incredibly tongue-in-cheek it all is enough to let them get by with this?

The National Council of Churches steps in it - AGAIN!

ABSOLUTELY! - There are giant fish to be caught.

Inside Steve Irwin. Memories of same.

Everything old is new again. Godzilla came from us dropping the bomb on Japan. Now this - and we didn't even do it!

It's like a cockroach that way.

They're right, you shouldn't make fun of the toilets in mainland China. I've been there - they speak for themselves.

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Thursday, September 07, 2006


Meeting In The Middle

I have posted a couple of times regarding Glenn Lucke's questions about the PC(USA) - first here and then here. The comments have continued on Glenn's original post, including the appearance of a self-described liberal in two rather lengthy comments.

The liberal is a PC(USA) church planter by the name of Richard Hong. His first comment is here and his second is here. Rev. Hong describes himself
You asked me in what regard I am a liberal: I am politically well to the left of Ted Kennedy (if I were European, I'd be in the Green Party or perhaps a Socialist). I think that barring GLBT persons from marriage and ordination is a sin of the church and society. I think that "intelligent design" has no place in any school devoted to serious academics. Theologically, I am pretty much a believer in Barth-ian universalism.
I'd say that qualifies as liberal! Although, I find Rev. Hong's claim to not practice evangelism based on his strick Calvinism in his first comment and his claim in the pull quote above to "Barth-ian universalism" somewhat cognitively dissonant, I am struck by how much Rev. Hong sounds like I do, right up to a point. Consider these two paragraphs
To be blunt, I believe that the major reason why conservative churches are growing and liberal churches are declining is that we are in a society where it is much easier to sell the message: "come and save yourself" rather than "come and help others." We live in a Wal-Mart world: "if I save money, who cares if workers are treated poorly?" If people who think like that are drawn to conservative churches, shouldn't conservative churches be WORRIED?


Making disciples is different from making believers. I want to make disciples - people who act as Christ would have them act.
I have said numerous times on this blog that the church fails in doing its job by being too evangelistic at the cost of making disciples. To these words of Rev. Hong's I shout AMEN! But then, Rev. Hong follows that last sentence with these words
That is far more important than making them believe what Jesus would have them believe. Granted, faith can be a good foundation for action. But I'll take a selfless atheist over a selfish "Christian" any day.
...And we must part company. Here is the difference from a theological perspective. Indeed we agree that selflessness is a key indicator in the transformation the Holy Spirit works in the Christian, and we agree that many who are saved still operate from selfish motive but, what I know is this, the selfless atheist still operates in his heart of hearts from selfishness, while the selfish Christian is on the path to selflessness, for the selfish Christian has the Holy Spirit at work in his life. We are not perfected by our salvation, we only begin the journey towards it.

But I believe the place where Rev. Hong and I most deeply part company is this
You shall know them by their fruits, and I regard the "fruits" of conservative politics to be completely opposed to Christian faith. So my question to conservative pastors is simple: doesn't it bother you that your message appeals to people who vote for a party that clearly has no regard for the poor and the oppressed? Shouldn't that cause you to ask yourself whether something is wrong in your message?
Political conservatives do not oppress or create poverty, they believe in minimalist government, that's all. They believe in feeding the poor, the difference is they believe the church should be doing it, not the federal government. They so believe because they believe that the transformative power of the Holy Spirit will make men better and service will happen.

And here I believe we come to the point where liberalism is largely responsible for the decline in the PC(USA) - the liberals simply put the cart before the horse. Now bear in mind, the horse is NOT SALVATION, the horse is sanctification. The message of the tranformative, not merely salvific, ramifications of faith in Jesus Christ gets lost in the business of trying to look like tranformation has already occurred. The fact of the matter is that as sinners we do not want to do the hard work of sanctification absent the transformative influence of the Holy Spirit, noted exceptions notwithstanding.

Oh I praise Rev. Hong's heart and his empathy and his hurt for the less fortunate - I share it. My heart aches. But God counsels us to patience, not action for action's sake. As Rev. Hong points out, selfless acts are often performed by the selfish. But God desires selfless acts performed by selfless people. Anything else descends into an ugly, if liberal in the best sense of the word, legalism which is precisely why people are staying away in droves.

The PC(USA) needs to recapture it core message, the message of transformation, not mere salvation, on this Rev. Hong and I agree completely. When that message re-emerges, I believe Rev. Hong will see selflessness on levels even he cannot dream about. But if we force the selfless act without the tranformation all we do is allow the selfish to congratulate themselves, and miss the voice of the Holy Spirit urging them to genuine selflessness.

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Illuminated Scripture

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"You're OK, Mate" Links

Why I am leery of measuring ministry success by financial performance. Certainly Christ empowers us to withstand baseless charges (I seem to recall some Messiah or the other was crucified for our sake on baseless charges) so either the charges made by the blogger have merit and this is an attempt at cover-up, or this is income protection - neither one works for genuine ministry. Andy Jackson asks a good question too.

OK, the cartoons are offensive, but asking for an apology starts to skirt that Arab-Islamic edge we saw in Europe a while back. Speaking of which, I have been buying into, for a while now, the argument that Islam as a religion was as much or more of a problem than anything else, this argues against that.

Laer's headline on this one says boatloads. For most "activists" the activism itself matters more than what they are active for - so they choose the target of convenience, not effect.

More earth-farts. Of course, a "true believer" would argue, that if the earth farts, we and especially our cattle, must stop. Although my sentiments lie with Monty Python's "French Taunter." Especially when I read things like this.

The price of service. SALUTE!

I had no idea he even had a fastball.

The whacko in science? The problem is, they're not guarding against the whacko, they're gaurding against the fact that if you let in the whackos, you have to let in the...Christians!? OMG!

Funny...I heard nothing about the bombing campaign that ususally proceeds such invasions.

OH PLEASE! Fish have been changing sex in response to population pressures long before there was pollution. As to even asking if the same is possible in humans...that's scinece fiction stuff, bad science fiction stuff.

As long as they don't pull it.

The line between creativity and bordom is a fine one.

You know, I was thinking the same thing just the other day....

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Wednesday, September 06, 2006


I'm OK - You're OK - The World; However, Stinks

Back in the day, the old High School/College days, this book swept the nation. I had my little mind "transactionally analyzed" by the finest of amatuers, who I am convinced never read past the title. Please note, I seriously mean amatuers - there is something of value in transactional analysis, when it is used by fully trained professionals. But when a book becomes as popular as "I'm OK, You're OK" did, you can bet your bottom dollar everybody thinks themselves a highly trained professional.

I do think the book title had a deep impact on my generation and subsequently society as a whole. The book itself was a pretty superficial treatment of something that should not be treated superficially, but I don't think many read the book, and most that did probably did not even begin to remember anything past the title.

Certainly no single book is responsible for the state of things today, but this book does, I think, make a good focal point. We want to feel good about ourselves (I'm OK) we want to get along with those around us (You're OK) - problem is we do that and things really don't get any better.

That's because God had a different plan for things. I am not "OK" - and neither are you, unless God makes us OK. Part of God making us OK is that we start with the realization that we most assuredly are NOT OK, and therefore get out of His way while he makes us OK. OK?

When I look around me today, at the state of the church, and the state of society as a whole, there is a lot of people thinking they are OK without letting God make them OK. The result is that everybody I am talking to is OK, but somehow the world is still just in awful, awful shape. How can that be? The practical ramification of that is that we spend a lot of time fixing the world, through politics and programs, ministires and messages, and almost no time trying to fix ourselves, that is to say, letting God fix us.

I wonder if it has dawned on most of us that if God wanted to fix the world through politics and minsitries, he would have established a government and built a church. Instead, He incarnated and died on a cross - things designed to fix me - not the world.

Funny thing though, If we let God make each of us OK - the world is going to end up OK too.

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Crikey! Links!

Faith, Hope, and Love - these three could change the world.

Because everything old is new again - Calvin and 'providence.'

I went there for a while, this might be an improvement on campus spiritual life.

Please ignore this and continuing being incredibly alarmed. After all, there are people to scare, and life numbing control to be exercised.

This device makes an odor ('odour' for those in the UK and down-under) based on music! So, what song will make the biggest stink? The mind boggles with possibilities - but my guess - Barbara Streisand!

Hey, I used that outline when I was doing Young Life!

Good Russians. -- Bad Russians (taste warning)

Speaking of Russians - I bet the sqeezings were more of a problem than the compresses themselves.

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Tuesday, September 05, 2006


Ridiculous Christian Bashing

This story out of Canada is so transparent in its efforts to bash Christians, as to almost be unworthy of comment. But why let that stop me?

Apparently some petroglyphs have been defaced in Canada, ruining the chances for a team of archeologists to have it declared important and therefore have their livelihoods guaranteed by governmental or quasi-governmental funding for the rest of their natural lives. Sad, really it is, but why do they go on the attack against Christians because of it?

Well, historically, though not recently, the images were vandalized with crosses, but there is no evidence the current problems are similar. The archeologists are simply being bigoted and the press is aiding them.

But, having said that, I have to opine that in many ways, we deserve it. Yes, the petroglyphs do depict pagan practice, but why was it ever necessary to "fix" them by putting a cross on them? I want to argue because of a lack of faith.

I, for one, find the gospel so compelling that it's truth and beauty that it does not require the bashing of other perspectives. Yes, we need to argue with those perspectives, but argument is something quite different from bashing or defacing. Obviously, if you feel that you must bash and deface, then you do not think the gospel is that compelling, and isn't that just another way of saying you lack faith?

Why do we ever make enemies outside the faith on any level, or in any circumstace? Because somewhere, we, or our predecessors have done it wrong. Christ, even Paul for that matter, had no enemies in the world - their enemies were the Jewish officials of the time, the Romans got involved mostly at the Jews' insistence.

When it comes to evangelism, and pre-evangelism for that matter, we need to remember there is a time for diplomacy and a time for defense, there are enemies you fight, then there are those you wish to turn into allies. Sometimes, I think we forget that.

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Link Hunter! - There's A Beauty

Understanding grace. A follow-up question: Do we purposefully misunderstand grace not for ourselves, but because it is easier NOT to offer correction when called for?

The idea of intervening in families producing "problem children" pre-birth, is apparently persisting in the UK. Though opposition is appearing. My opinion, the idea is horrific in it's conception, forget the details. Even if there is no eugenic intent in it's founding it creates the mechanisms by which eugenics can be practiced. Time for Blair to go, I don't care how good an ally he has been in the GWOT, he is clearly a politician on his last legs - grabbing at straws, hopefully his departure will kill this idea dead in it's tracks.

For the record - secondarily-derived data cannot never be as reliable as direct measurement. Any article like this that does not talk about "confidence limits" and comparitive margins for error MUST be ignored, otherwise you are comparing apples and beef cattle.

Mind-roasting time-waster. Your 3-D visualization skills better be in top form to even start.

This says volumes about the state of science today. And this explains it to some extent.

The line between crime and military operation is a thin one.

Who'd-a-thought that after a holiday weekend I'd have a hard time finding anything to joke about - I'm grateful for my wife's cartoons today! Keep scrolling.

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Kitty Kartoons

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Monday, September 04, 2006


Labor Day Links

I've made jokes about him, but this news is very sad. Steve Irwin, the Croc Hunter is dead. It was obvious from the show "Crocodile Hunter Diaries" that he was a great guy and much loved. Apparently his politics were in the right place too. Funny how when you watch kids grow on TV, you really feel for them. Blogotional prayers for his family and extended family at the zoo. My Queensland Aussie friend John misses him too.

Update (a couple of hours later): In some corners of TV news and the blogosphere, Steve Irwin is not being mourned, but being condemned for being too much of a risk taker, and somehow a bad influence, particularly because his TV shows did not show the precautions he often exercised to protect himself. I've even seen comparisions to the Roman gladiators. HOGWASH! Look, you may not choose to take the risks he did, your perogative. But it is still a world where people can choose to take risks and in taking those risks, the rest of us often benefit, whether it be entertainment, or science. You do know that to make anti-venom, you have to catch and milk venomous animals don't you?

What's worse is that many of the people condemning Irwin's risk-taking are all for morally ambiguous risk-taking like cloning and other controversial genetic research, the ramifications of which might not be as immediate, but could be far more dangerous.

But most of all, can't we just let the people that loved the guy mourn him in peace? Has it dawned on any of the punditry out there that is so busy condemning him that he has a family that really does not need to hear this stuff right now? Think about it, what's being said is "Your father's dead, your father's an ass" Give 'em a break, will you. Save the debate for later, at least.

Proof of my contention much environmental law is disguised socialism. (HT: Amy Ridenour)

OK, you know how when someone gets fired, you get to blame EVERYTHING that is wrong with the workplace on them for at least 6 months to a year? Well, that's global warming now. Think I'll write a paper about my hemmeroids....

This may increase grades, but will it increase understanding? I think it will result in students that can perform math, but I don;t think it will result in genuine understanding or real mathematicians.

If you gonna use the Internet - you need to be a little savvy. This guy probably thinks it's "tubes."

This is unique. Here in America we make the bar owners put them in the bars.

I have no doubt this is true. Haven't been to the site, but been to China and dealth with environmental officials there. Makes the Soviet Union look like an environmental paradise, even with incidents like Chernobyl. So, all you people trying to pass new environmental stuff here - go bother them for a while, it'll take decades for them to come close to our standards.

Life, given half a chance will prevail. So, why don't we give it a chance?

The answer, of course, is no. As Lomborg has shown wealth is the key to ending pollution.

Codes were a lot more fun in the days before computers.

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Monday Memed

Well, Catez left a comment and said I could

1. Are you craving anything and if so, what?

After losing nearly 200 pounds in a little over 2 years, try EVERYTHING! Special treat - my wife's sugar cookies with home made butter cream frosting.

2. What is the weather outside, and do you wish it would change?

Hotter than the hinges of hell, as only Southern California can be for those few weeks every summer. And yes I'd change it - those few weeks are my least favorite.

3. What two websites do you think you will go to next after you are finished here?

Marvel or DC comics, looking for new wallpaper for my desktop. (HEY! it's the weekend!) Or, perhaps just work on my other blog.

4. Do you wish you were somewhere else and if so, where?

Actually, I'm pretty content anywhere as long as I'm with my wife, and given how hard travel out of LA is on a holiday weekend, I think we are fine just where we are. But any other time, on the road, in my new car, in the American Southwest, wouldn't be bad - cruising, tunes, fast....

5. Do you wish you were someone else, and if so, who?

Oh heavens NO! - I am quite content being me, just want to be me another 50-70 pounds lighter...

Who to tag? Rob -- Brad -- Matt (miss you buddy!) -- Rebecca - And anyone else that wants to play.

Sunday, September 03, 2006


Holiday Weekend Links II

No doubt, we'll have to go clean it up.

It's official - terror fears may have crept a bit to high. Intergovernment communication definitely at an all time low. NOTE TO USGS: Labels!

How come this was never a comic book?

This is a pretty cool video, question is, what is it? I'm thinking either some NASCAR fans deepest wish or the ending sequence from the next Blues Brothers movie.

A man in desparate need of a hobby, well, at least a different hobby.

Thank God these evil doers are off the street. The FBI is supposed to be cathcing terrorists! If people want pets that will rip their throats out - as long as they keep the pets on a leash so they don't rip my throat out, hey...

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Sermons and Lessons


John Calvin was born in 1509, at Noyon, France. He has been called the greatest of Protestant commentators and theologians, and the inspirer of the Puritan exodus. He often preached every day for weeks in succession. He possessed two of the greatest elements in successful pulpit oratory, self-reliance and authority. It was said of him, as it was afterward said of Webster, that "every word weighed a pound." His style was simple, direct, and convincing. He made men think. His splendid contributions to religious thought, and his influence upon individual liberty, give him a distinguished place among great reformers and preachers. His idea of preaching is thus expressed in his own words: "True preaching must not be dead, but living and effective. No parade of rhetoric, but the Spirit of God must resound in the voice in order to operate with power." He died at Geneva in 1564.


Let us go forth therefore unto Him without the camp bearing His reproach. - Hebrews 13:3.

All the exhortations which can be given us to suffer patiently for the name of Jesus Christ, and in defense of the gospel, will have no effect if we do not feel assured of the cause for which we fight. For when we are called to part with life, it is absolutely necessary to know on what grounds. The firmness necessary we can not possess, unless it be founded on certainty of faith.

It is true that persons may be found who will foolishly expose themselves to death in maintaining some absurd opinions and dreams conceived by their own brain, but such impetuosity is more to be regarded as frenzy than as Christian zeal; and, in fact, there is neither firmness nor sound sense in those who thus, at a kind of haphazard, cast themselves away. But, however this may be, it is in a good cause only that God can acknowledge us as His martyrs. Death is common to all, and the children of God are condemned to ignominy and tortures as criminals are; but God makes the distinction between them, inasmuch as He can not deny His truth. On our part, then, it is requisite that we have sure and infallible evidence of the doctrine which we maintain; and hence, as I have said, we can not be rationally impressed by any exhortations which we receive to suffer persecution for the gospel, if no true certainty of faith has been imprinted in our hearts. For to hazard our life upon a peradventure is not natural, and though we were to do it, it would only be rashness, not Christian courage. In a word, nothing that we do will be approved of God if we are not thoroughly persuaded that it is for Him and His cause we suffer persecution, and the world is our enemy.

Now, when I speak of such persuasion, I mean not merely that we must know how to distinguish between true religion and the abuses or follies of men, but also that we must be thoroughly persuaded of the heavenly life, and the crown which is promised us above, after we shall have fought here below. Let us understand, then, that both of these requisites are necessary, and can not be separated from each other. The points, accordingly, with which we must commence are these: We must know well what our Christianity is, what the faith which we have to hold and follow, what the rule which God has given US; and we must be so well furnished with such instructions as to be able boldly to condemn all the falsehoods, errors, and superstitions which Satan has introduced to corrupt the pure simplicity of the doctrine of God. Hence, we ought not to be surprised that, in the present day, we see so few persons disposed to suffer for the gospel, and that the greater part of those who call themselves Christians know not what it is. For all are, as it were, lukewarm; and instead of making it their business to hear or read, count it enough to have had some slight taste of Christian faith. This is the reason why there is so little decision, and why those who are assailed immediately fall away. This fact should stimulate us to inquire more diligently into divine truth, in order to be well assured with regard to it.

Still, however, to be well informed and grounded is not the whole, that is necessary. For we see some who seem to be thoroughly imbued with sound doctrine, and who, notwithstanding, have no more zeal or affection than if they had never known any more of God than some fleeting fancy. Why is this? Just because they have never comprehended the majesty of the Holy Scriptures. And, in fact, did we, such as we are, consider well that it is God who speaks to us, it is certain that we would listen more attentively, and with greater reverence. If we would think that in reading Scripture we are in the school of angels, we would be far more careful and desirous to profit by the doctrine which is propounded to us.

We now see the true method of preparing to stiffer for the gospel. First, We must have profited so far in the school of God as to be decided in regard to true religion and the doctrine which we are to hold; and we must despise all the wiles and impostures of Satan, and all human inventions, as things not only frivolous but also carnal, inasmuch as they corrupt Christian purity; therein differing, like true martyrs of Christ, from the fantastic persons who suffer for mere absurdities. Second, Feeling assured of the good cause, we must be inflamed, accordingly, to follow God whithersoever He may call us: His Word must have such authority with us as it deserves, and having withdrawn from this world, we must feel as it were enraptured in seeking the heavenly life.

But it is more than strange that, though the light of God is shining more brightly than it ever did before, there is a lamentable want of zeal! If the thought does not fill us with shame, so much the worse. For we must shortly come before the great Judge, where the iniquity which we endeavor to hide will be brought forward with such upbraidings that we shall be utterly confounded. For, if we are obliged to bear testimony to God, according to the measure of the knowledge which He has given us, to what is it owing, I would ask, that we are so cold and timorous in entering into battle, seeing that God has so fully manifested Himself at this time that He may be said to have opened to us and displayed before us the great treasures of His secrets? May it not be said that we do not think we have to do with God? For had we any regard to His Majesty we would not dare to turn the doctrine which proceeds from Him into some kind of philosophic speculation. In short, it is impossible to deny that it is our great shame, not to say fearful condemnation, that we have so well known the truth of God, and have so little courage to maintain it!

Above all, when we look to the martyrs of past times, well may we detest our own cowardice! The greater part of those were not persons much versed in Holy Scripture, so as to be able to dispute on all subjects. They knew that there was one God, whom they behooved to worship and Serve "that they had been redeemed by the blood of Jesus Christ, in order that they might place their confidence of salvation in Him and in His grace" and that, all the inventions of men being mere dross and rubbish, they ought to condemn all idolatries and superstitions. In one word, their theology was in substance this "There is one God who created all the world, and declared his will to us by Moses and the prophets, and finally by Jesus Christ and His apostles; and we have one sole Redeemer, who purchased us by His blood, and by whose grace we hope to be saved: All the idols of the world are curst, and deserve execration. "

With a system embracing no other points than these, they went boldly to the flames, or to any other kind of death. They did not go in twos or threes, but in such bands that the number of those who fell by the hands of tyrants is almost infinite! We, on our part, are such learned clerks that none can be more so (so at least we think), and, in fact, so far as regards the knowledge of Scripture, God has so spread it out before us that no former age was ever so highly favored. Still, after all, there is scarcely a particle of zeal. When men manifest such indifference, it looks as if they were bent on provoking the vengeance of God.

What then should be done in order to inspire our breasts with true courage? We have, in the first place, to consider how precious the confession of our faith is in the sight of God. We little know how much God prizes it, if our life, which is nothing, is valued by us more highly. When it is so, we manifest a marvelous degree of stupidity. We can not save our life at the expense of our confession with out acknowledging that we hold it in higher estimation than the honor of God and the salvation of our souls.

A heathen could say that "It was a miserable thing to save life by giving up the only things which made life desirable!" And yet he and others like him never knew for what end men are placed in the world, and why they live in it. It is true they knew enough to say that men ought to follow virtue, to conduct themselves honestly and without reproach; but all their virtues were mere paint and smoke. We know far better what the chief aim of life should be, namely, to glorify God, in order that He may be our glory. When this is not done, woe to us! And we can not continue to live for a single moment upon the earth without heaping additional curses on our heads. Still we are not ashamed to purchase some few days to languish here below, renouncing eternal kingdom by separating ourselves from Him by whose energy we are sustained in life.

Were we to ask the most ignorant, not to say the most brutish, persons in the world why they live, they would not venture to answer simply that it is to eat, and drink, and sleep; for all know that they have been created for a higher and holier end. And what end can we find if it be not to honor God, and allow ourselves to be governed by Him, like children by good parents; so that after we have finished the journey of this corruptible life, we may be received into His eternal inheritance? Such is the principal, indeed the sole end. When we do not take it into account, and are intent on a brutish life. Which is worse than a thousand deaths, what can we allege for our excuse? To live and not know why is unnatural. To reject the causes for which we live, under the influence of a foolish longing for a respite of some few days, during which we are to live in the world, while separated from God - I know not how to name such infatuation and madness!

But as persecution is always harsh and bitter, let us consider how and by what means Christians may be able to fortify themselves with patience, so as unflinchingly to expose their life for the truth of God. The text which we have read out, when it is properly understood, is sufficient to induce us to do so. The apostle says, Let us go forth from the city after the Lord Jesus, bearing His reproach. In the first place, he reminds us, although the swords should not be drawn against us nor the fires kindled to burn us, that we can not be truly united to the Son of God while we are rooted in this world. Wherefore a Christian, even in repose, must always have one foot lifted to march to battle, and not only so, but he must have his affections withdrawn from the world, although his body is dwelling in it. Grant that this at first sight seems to us hard, still we must be satisfied with the words of St. Paul (I Thess 3), that we are called and appointed to suffer. As if He had said, such is our condition as Christians; this is the road by which we must go if we would follow Christ.

Meanwhile, to solace our infirmity and mitigate the vexation and sorrow which persecution might cause us, a good reward is held forth: In suffering for the cause of God, we are walking step by step after the Son of God, and have Him for our guide. Were it simply said that to be Christians we must pass through all the insults of the world boldly, to meet death at all times and in whatever way God may be pleased to appoint, we might apparently have some pretext for replying that it is a strange road to go at peradventure. But when we are commanded to follow the Lord Jesus, His guidance is too good and honorable to be refused. Now, in order that we may be more deeply moved, not only is it said that Jesus Christ walks before us as our Captain, but that we are made conformable to His image; so St. Paul says in the eighth chapter to the Romans that God hath ordained all those whom He hath adopted for His children, to be made conformable to Him who is the pattern and head of all.

Are we so delicate as to be unwilling to endure anything? Then we must renounce the grace of God by which He has called us to the hope of salvation. For there are two things which can not be separated - to be members of Christ, and to be tried by many afflictions. We certainly ought to prize such a conformity to the Son of God much more than we do. It is true, that in the world's judgment there is disgrace in suffering for the gospel. But since we know that believers are blind, ought we not to have better eyes than they? It is ignominy to suffer from those who occupy the seat of justice, but St. Paul shows us by his example that we have to glory in scourings for Jesus Christ, as marks by which God recognizes us and avows us for His own And we know what St. Luke narrates of Peter and John (Acts 5:41); namely, that they rejoiced to have been counted worthy to suffer infamy and reproach for the name of the Lord Jesus.

Ignominy and dignity are two opposites: so says the world, which, being infatuated, judges against all reason, and in this way converts the glory of God into dishonor. But, on our part, let us not refuse to be vilified as concerns the world, in order to be honored before God and His angels. We see what pains the ambitious take to receive the commands of a king, and what a boast they make of it. The Son of God presents His commands to us, and every one stands back. Tell me, pray, whether in so doing are we worthy of having anything in common with Him? there is nothing here to attract our sensual nature, but such notwithstanding are the true escutcheons of nobility in the heavens. Im¬prisonment, exile, evil report, imply in men imagination whatever is to be vituperated; but what hinders us from viewing things as God judges and declares them, save our unbelief? Wherefore, let the name of the Son of God have all the weight with us which it deserves, that we may learn to count it honor when He stamps His marks upon us. If we act otherwise our ingratitude is insupportable.

Were God to deal with us according to our desserts, would He not have just cause to chastise us daily in a thousand ways? Nay more, a hundred thousand deaths would not suffice for a small portion of our misdeeds! Now, if in His infinite goodness He puts all our faults under His foot and abolishes them, and instead of punishing us according to our demerit, devises an admirable means to convert our afflictions into honor and a special privilege, inasmuch as through them we are taken into partnership with His Son, must it not be said, when we disdain such a happy state, that we have indeed made little progress in Christian doctrine?

Accordingly, St. Peter, after exhorting us (I Peter 4:15) to walk so purely in the fear of God, as not to suffer as thieves, adulterers, and murderers, immediately adds, that if we must suffer as Christians, let us glorify God for the blessing which He thus bestows upon us. It is not without cause he speaks thus. For who are we, I pray, to be witnesses of the truth of God, and advocates to maintain His cause? Here we are poor worms of the earth, creatures full of vanity, full of lies, and yet God employs us to defend His truth - an honor which pertains not even to the angels of heaven! May not this consideration alone well inflame us to offer ourselves to God to be employed in any way in such honorable service?

Many persons, however, can not refrain from pleading against God, or, at least, from complaining against Him for not better supporting their weakness. It is marvelously strange, they say, how God, after having chosen us for His children, allows us to be trampled upon and tormented by the ungodly. I answer: Even were it not apparent why He does so, He might well exercise His authority over us, and fix our lot at His pleasure. But when we see that Jesus Christ is our pattern, ought we not, without inquiring further, to esteem it great happiness that we are made like Him? God, however, makes it very apparent what the reasons are for which He is pleased that we should be persecuted. Had we nothing more than the consideration suggested by St. Peter (I Peter i., 7), we were disdainful indeed not to acquiesce in it. He says that since gold and silver, which are only corruptible metals, are purified and tested by fire, it is but reasonable that our faith, which surpasses all the riches of the world, should be so tried.

It were easy indeed for God to crown us at once without requiring us to sustain any combats; but as it is His pleasure that until the end of the world Christ shall reign in the midst of His enemies, so it is also His pleasure that we, being placed in the midst of them, shall suffer their oppression and violence till He deliver us. I know, indeed, that the flesh rebels when it is to be brought to this point, but still the will of God must have the mastery. If we feel some repugnance in ourselves, it need not surprise us; for it is only too natural for us to shun the cross. Still let us not fail to surmount it, knowing that God accepts our obedience, provided we bring all our feelings and wishes into captivity, and make them subject to Him.

When prophets and apostles went to death, it was not without feeling some inclination to recoil. "They shall carry thee whither thou wouldst not," said our Lord Jesus Christ to Peter. (John 21:18). When such fears of death arise within us, let us gain the mastery over them, or rather let God gain it; and meanwhile, let us feel assured that we offer Him a pleasing sacrifice when we resist and do violence to our inclinations for the purpose of placing ourselves entirely under His command: This is the principle war in which God would have His people to be engaged. He would have them strive to suppress every rebellious thought and feeling which would turn them aside from the path to which He points. And the consolations are so ample that it may well be said, we are more than cowards if we give away!

In ancient times vast numbers of people, to obtain a simple crown of leaves, refused no toil, no pain, no trouble; nay, it even cost them nothing to die, and yet every one of them fought for a peradventure, not knowing whether he was to gain or to lose the prize. God holds forth to us the immortal crown by which we may become partakers of His glory: He does not mean us to fight at haphazard, but all of us have a promise of the prize for which we strive. Have we any cause then to decline the struggle? Do we think it has been said in vain that if we die with Jesus Christ we shall also live with Him? Our triumph is prepared, and yet we do all we can to shun the combat.

But it is said that all we teach on this subject is repugnant to human judgment. I confess it. And hence when our Savior declares, "Blest are they which are persecuted for righteousness sake" (Matt. 5:10), He gives utterance to a sentiment which is not easily received in the world. On the contrary, He wishes to account that as happiness which in the judgment of sense is misery. We seem to ourselves miserable when God leaves us to be trampled upon by the tyranny and cruelty of our enemies; but the error is that we look not to the promises of God, which assure us that all will turn to our good. We are cast down when we see the wicked stronger than we, and planting their foot on our throat; but such confusion should rather, as St. Paul says, cause us to lift .up our heads. Seeing we are too much disposed to amuse ourselves with present objects, God in permitting the good to be maltreated, and the wicked to have sway, shows by evident tokens that a day is coming on which all that is now in confusion will be reduced to order. If the period seems distant, let us run to the remedy, and not flatter ourselves in our sin; for it is certain that we have no faith if we can not carry our views forward to the coming of Jesus Christ.

To leave no means which may be fitted to stimulate us unemployed, God sets before us promises on the one hand and threatenings on the other. Do we feel that the promises have not sufficient influence, let us strengthen them by adding the threatenings. It is true we must be perverse in the extreme not to put more faith in the promises of God, when the Lord Jesus says that He will own us as His before His Father, provided we confess Him before men. (Matt. 10:32; Luke 12:8.) What should prevent us from making the confession which He requires? Let men do their utmost, they can not do worse than murder us! and will not the heavenly life compensate for this? I do not here collect all the passages in Scripture which bear on this subject: they are so often reiterated that we ought to be thoroughly satisfied with them. When the struggle comes, if three or four passages do not suffice, a hundred surely ought to make us proof against all contrary temptations.

But if God can not will us to Himself by gentle means, must we not be mere blocks if His threatenings also fail? Jesus Christ summons all those who from fear of temporal death shall have denied the truth, to appear at the bar of God his Father, and says, that then both body and soul will be consigned to perdition. (Matt. 10:28; Luke 12: 5.) And in another passage He says that He will disclaim all those who shall have denied Him before men. (Matt. 10:33; Luke 12:10.) These words, if we are not altogether impervious to feeling, might well make our hair stand on end. Be this as it may, this much is certain; if these things do not move us as they ought, nothing remains for us but a fearful judgment. (Heb. 10:27.) All the words of Christ having proved unavailing, we stand convinced of gross infidelity.

It is in vain for us to allege that pity should be shown us, inasmuch as our nature is so frail; for it is said, on the contrary, that Moses, having looked to God by faith, was fortified so as not to yield under any temptation. Wherefore, when we are thus soft and easy to bend, it is a manifest sign, I do not say that we have no zeal, no firmness, but that we know nothing either of God or His kingdom. When we are reminded that we ought to be united to our Head, it seems to us a fine pretext for exemption to say that we are men. But what were those who have trodden the path before us? Indeed, had we nothing more than pure doctrine, all the excuses we could make would be frivolous; but having so many examples which ought to supply us with the strongest proof, the more deserving are we of condemnation.

There are two points to be considered. The first is, that the whole body of the Church in general has always been, and to the end will be, liable to be afflicted by the wicked, as is said in the Psalms (Psalms 79:1), "From my youth up they have tormented me, and dragged the plow over me from one end to the other." The Holy Spirit there brings in the ancient Church, in order that we, after being much acquainted with her afflictions, may not regard it as either new or vexatious when the like is done to ourselves in the present day. St. Paul, also, in quoting from another Psalm (Born. 7:36; Psalm 119:22), a passage which says, "We have been led like sheep to the slaughter"; shows that that has not been for one age only, but is the ordinary condition of the Church, and shall be.

Therefore, on seeing how the Church of God is trampled upon in the present day by proud worldlings, how one barks and another bites, how they torture, how they plot against her, how she is assailed incessantly by mad dogs and savage beasts, let it remind us that the same thing was done in all the olden time. It is true God sometimes gives her a truce and time of refreshment, and hence in the Psalm above quoted it is said, "He cutteth the cords of the wicked"; and in another passage (Psalm 125: 3), "He breaks their staff, lest the good should fall away, by being too hardly pressed." But still it has pleased Him that His Church should always have to battle so long as she is in this world, her repose being treasured up on high in the heavens. (Heb. 3:9.)

Meanwhile, the issue of her afflictions has always been fortunate. At all events, God has caused that though she has been pressed by many calamities, she has never been completely crushed; as it is said (Psalm 7:15), The wicked with all their efforts have not succeeded in that at which they aimed.? St. Paul glories in the fact, and shows that this is the course which God in mercy always takes. He says (I Cor. 9:12) that we endure tribulations, but we are not in agony; we are impoverished, but not left destitute; we are persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but we perish not; bearing everywhere in our body the mortification of the Lord Jesus, in order that His life may be manifested in our mortal bodies. Such being, as we see, the issue which God has at all times given to the persecutions of His Church, we ought to take courage, knowing that our forefathers, who were frail men like ourselves, always had the victory over their enemies by remaining firm in endurance.

I only touch upon this article briefly to come to the second, which is more to our purpose, viz. that we ought to take advantage of the particular examples of the martyrs who have gone before us. These are not confined to two or three, but are, as the apostle says (Heb. 12:1), "So great a cloud of witnesses." By this expression he intimates that the number is so great that it ought, as it were, completely to engross our sight. Not to be tedious, I will only mention the Jews, who were persecuted for the true religion, as well under the tyranny of King Antiochus as a little after his death. We can not allege that the number of sufferers was small, for it formed, as it Here, a large army of martyrs. We can not say that it consisted of prophets whom God had set apart from common people, for women and young children formed part of the band. We can not say that they got off at a cheap rate, for they were tortured as cruelly as it was possible to be. Accordingly, we hear what the apostle says (Heb. 11:35), that some were stretched out like drums, not caring to be delivered, that they might obtain a better resurrection; others were proved by mockery and blows, or bonds and prisons; others were stoned or sawn as¬under; others traveled up and down, wandering among mountains and caves.

Let us now compare their case with ours. If they so endured for the truth which was at that time so obscure, what ought we to do in the clear light which is now shining? God speaks to us with open mouth; the great gate of the kingdom of heaven has been opened, and Jesus Christ calls us to Himself, after having come down to us that we might have him, as it were, present to our eyes. What a reproach would it be to us to have less zeal in suffering for the gospel than those who had only hailed the promises afar off - who had only a little wicket opened whereby to come to the kingdom of God, and who had only some memorial and type of Jesus Christ? These things can not be expressed in a word, as they deserve, and therefore I leave each to ponder them for himself.

The doctrine now laid down, as it is general, ought to be carried into practice by all Christians, each applying it to his own use according as may be necessary. This I say, in order that those who do not see themselves in apparent danger may not think it superfluous as regards them. They are not at this hour in the hands of tyrants, but how do they know what God means to do with them hereafter? We ought therefore to be so fore-armed that if some persecution which we did not expect arrives, we may not be taken unawares. But I much fear that there are many deaf ears in regard to this subject. So far are those who are sheltered and at their ease from preparing to suffer death when need shall be that they do not even trouble themselves about serving God in their lives. It nevertheless continues true that this prepara¬tion for persecution ought to be our ordinary study, and especially in the times in which we live.

Those, again, whom God calls to suffer for the testimony of His name ought to show by deeds that they have been thoroughly trained to patient endurance. Then ought they to recall to mind all the exhortations which were given them in times past, and bestir themselves just as the soldier rushes to arms when the tempest sounds. But how different is the result. The only question is how to find out subterfuges for escaping. I say this in regard to the greater part; for persecution is a true touchstone by which God ascertains who are His. And few are so faithful as to be prepared to meet death boldly.

It is a kind of monstrous thing, that persons who make a boast of having a little of the gospel, can venture to open their lips to give utterance to such quibbling. Some will say, what do we gain by confessing our faith to obstinate people who have deliberately resolved to fight against God? Is not this to cast pearls before swine? As if Jesus Christ had not distinctly declared (Matt. 8:38) that He wishes to be confessed among the perverse and malignant. If they are not instructed thereby, they will at all events remain confounded; and hence confession is an odor of a sweet smell before God, even tho it be deadly to the reprobate. There are some who say, what will our death profit? Will it not rather prove an offense? As if God hath left them the choice of dying when they should see it good and find the occasion opportune. On the contrary, we approve our obedience by leaving in His hand the profit which is to accrue from our death.

In the first place, then, the Christian man, wherever he may be, must resolve, notwithstanding dangers or threatenings, to walk in simplicity as God has commanded. Let him guard as much as he can against the ravening of the wolves, but let it not be with carnal craftiness. Above all, let him place his life in the hands of God. Has he done so? Then if he happens to fall into the hands of the enemy, let him think that God, having so arranged, is pleased to have him for one of the witnesses of His Son, and therefore that he has no means of drawing back without breaking faith with Him to "whom we have promised all duty in life and in death" Him whose we are and to whom we belong, even though we should have made no promise.

In saying this I do not lay all under the necessity. of making a full and entire confession of everything which they believe, even should they be required to do so. I am aware also of the measure observed by St. Paul, although no man was ever more determined boldly to maintain the cause of the gospel as he ought. And hence it is not without cause our Lord promises to give us, on such an occasion, "a mouth and wisdom" (Luke 21:15) ; as if he had said, that the office of the Holy Spirit is not only to strengthen us to be bold and valiant, but also to give us prudence and discretion, to guide us in the course which it will be expedient to take.

The substance of the whole is, that those who are in such distress are to ask and obtain such prudence from above, not following their own carnal wisdom, in searching out for a kind of loop-hole by which to escape. There are some who tell us that our Lord Himself gave no answer to those who interrogated Him. But I rejoin, First, that this does not abolish the rule which He has given us to make confession of our faith when so required. (I Peter 3:15.) Secondly; That He never used any disguise to save His life: and, Thirdly, That He never gave an answer so ambiguous as not to embody a sufficient testimony to all that He had to say; and that, moreover, He had already satisfied those who came to interrogate Him anew, with the view not obtaining information, but merely of laying traps to ensnare Him.

Let it be held, then, as a fixed point among all Christians, that they ought not to hold their life more precious than the testimony to the truth, inasmuch as God wishes to be glorified thereby. Is it in vain that He gives the name of witnesses (for this is the meaning of the word martyr) to all who have to answer before the enemies of the faith? Is it not because lie wished to employ them for such a purpose? Here every one is not to look for his fellow, for God does not honor all alike with the call. And as we are inclined so to look, we must be the more on our guard against it. Peter having heard from the lips of our Lord Jesus (John 21:18) that he should be led in his old age where he would not, asked, what was to become of his companion John? There is not one among us who would not readily have put the same question; for the thought which instantly rises in our mind is, why do I suffer rather than others? On the contrary, Jesus Christ exhorts all of us in common, and each of us in particular, to hold ourselves "ready," in order that according as He shall call this one or that one, we may march forth in our turn.

I explained above how little prepared we shall be to suffer martyrdom, if we be not armed with the divine promises. It now remains to show somewhat more fully what the purport and aim of these promises are?not to specify them all in detail, but to show the principal things which God wishes us to hope from Him, to console us in our afflictions. Now these things, taken summarily, are three. The first is, that inasmuch as our life and death are in His hand, He will preserve us by His might that not a hair will be plucked out of our heads without His leave. Believers, therefore, ought to feel assured into whatever hands they may fall, that God is not divested of the guardianship which He exercises over their persons. Were such a persuasion well imprinted on our hearts, we should be delivered from the greater part of the doubts and perplexities which torment us and obstruct us in our duty.

We see tyrants let loose: thereupon it seems to us that God no longer possesses any means of saving us, and we are tempted to provide for our own affairs as if nothing more were to be expected from Him. On the contrary, His providence, as He unfolds it, ought to be regarded by us as an impregnable fortress. Let us labor, then, to learn the full import of the expression, that our bodies are in the hands of Him who created them. For this reason He has sometimes delivered His people in a miraculous manner, and beyond all human expectation, as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, from the fiery furnace, Daniel from the den of lions; Peter from Herod's prison, where he was locked, chained, and guarded so closely. By these examples He meant to testify that He holds our enemies in check, although it may not seem so, and has power to withdraw us from the midst of death when He pleases. Not that He always does it; but in reserving authority to Himself to dispose of us for life and for death, He would have us to feel fully assured that He has us under His charge; so that whatever tyrants attempt, and with whatever fury they may rush against us, it belongs to Him alone to order our life.

If He permits tyrants to slay us, it is not because our life is not dear to Him, and held in a hundred times greater honor than it deserves. Such being the case, having declared by the mouth of David (Psalm 66:13), that the death of the saints is precious in His sight, He says also by the mouth of Isaiah 26:21, that the earth will discover the blood which seems to be concealed. Let the enemies of the gospel, then, be as prodigal as they will of the blood of martyrs, they shall have to render a fearful account of it even to its last drop. In the present day, they indulge in proud derision while consigning believers to the flames; and after having bathed in their blood, they are intoxicated by it to such a degree as to count all the murders which they commit mere festive sport. But if we have patience to wait, God will show in the end that it is not in vain He has taxed our life at so high a value. Meanwhile, let it not offend us that it seems to confirm the gospel, which in worth surpasses heaven and earth.

To be better assured that God does not leave us as it were forsaken in the hands of tyrants, let us remember the declarations of Jesus Christ, when He says (Acts 9:4) that He Himself is persecuted in His members. God had indeed said before, (Zech. 2:8), "He who touches you touches the apple of mine eye." But here it is said much more expressly, that if we suffer for the gospel, it is as much as if the Son of God were suffering in person. Let us know, therefore, that Jesus Christ must forget Himself before He can cease to think of us when we are in prison, or in danger of death for His cause; and let us know that God will take to heart all the outrages which tyrants commit upon us, just as if they were committed on His own Son.

Let us now come to the second point which God declares to us in His promise for our consolation. It is, that He will so sustain us by the energy of His Spirit that our enemies, do what they may, even with Satan at their head, will gain no advantage over us. And we see how He displays His gifts in such an emergency; for the invincible constancy which appears in the martyrs abundantly and beautifully demonstrates that God works in them mightily. In persecution there are two things grievous to the flesh, the vituperation and insult of men, and the tortures which the body suffers. Now, God promises to hold out His hand to us so effectually, that we shall overcome both by patience. What He thus tells us He confirms by fact. Let us take this buckler, then, to ward off all fears by which we are assailed, and let us not confine the working of the Holy Spirit within such narrow limits as to suppose that He will not easily defeat all the cruelties of men.

Of this we have had, among other examples, one which is particularly memorable. A young man who once lived with us here, having been apprehended in the town of Tournay, was condemned to have his head cut off if he recanted, and to be burned alive if he contin¬ued steadfast to his purpose. When asked what he meant to do, he replied simply, "He who will give me grace to die patiently for His name, will surely give me grace to bear the fire." We ought to take this expression not as that of a mortal man, but as that of the Holy Spirit, to assure us that God is not less powerful to strengthen us, and render us victorious over tortures, than to make us submit willingly to a milder death. Moreover, we oftentimes see what firmness he gives to unhappy malefactors who suffer for their crimes. I speak not of the hardened, but of those who derive consolation from the grace of Jesus Christ, and by His means, with a peaceful heart, undergo the most grievous punishment which can be inflicted. One beautiful instance is seen in the thief who was con¬verted at the death of our Lord. Will God, who thus powerfully assists poor criminals when enduring the punishment of their misdeeds, be so wanting to His own people, while fighting for His cause, as not to give them invincible courage?

The third point for consideration in the promises which God gives His martyrs is, the fruit which they ought to hope for from their sufferings, and in the end, if need be, from their death. Now, this fruit is, that after having glorified His Name - after having edified the Church by their constancy - they, will be gathered together with the Lord Jesus into His immortal glory. But as we have above spoken of this at some length, it is enough here to recall it to remembrance. Let believers, then, learn to lift up their heads towards the crown of glory and immortality to which God invites them, thus they may not feel reluctant to quit the present life for such a recompense; and, to feel well assured of this inestimable blessing, let them have always before their eyes the conformity which they thus have to our Lord Jesus Christ; beholding death in the midst of life, just as He, by the reproach of the cross, attained to the glorious resurrection, wherein consists all our felicity, joy, and triumph.

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